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MDMA Ecstasy addiciton

MDMA Ecstasy Addiction

MDMA Ecstasy addiction, the so-called “club drug” MDMA continues to be used by millions of Americans across the country. Despite evidence of its potential harmful effects. 3,4-methylenedioxy methamphetamine (MDMA, or ecstasy) has gained a deceptive reputation as a “safe” drug among its users.

This illegal drug, which has both stimulant and psychedelic properties, is often taken for the feelings of well-being, stimulation. Also the distortions in time and sensory perceptions that it produces. MDMA first became popular in the “rave” and all-night party scene. But its use has now spread to a wide range of settings and demographic subgroups.

According to the 2004 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, more than 11 million people have tried MDMA . At least once. Myths abound about both the acute effects and long-term consequences of this drug, often called ecstasy or “X.”

Indeed, one reason for the rapid rise in the drug’s popularity. Is simply that many young people believe that MDMA is a new safe drug. But MDMA Ecstasy addiction is not new to the scientific community. As many laboratories began investigating this drug in the 1980s, and the picture emerging from their efforts is of a drug that is far from benign. For example, MDMA can cause a dangerous increase in body temperature that can lead to kidney failure. MDMA can also increase heart rate, blood pressure, and heart wall stress.

Animal studies

Animal studies show that MDMA can damage specific neurons in the brain. In humans, the research is not conclusive at this time. However, a number of studies show that long-term, heavy MDMA users suffer cognitive deficits. Including problems with memory. NIDA-supported research is developing a clearer picture of the potential dangers of MDMA. This Research Report summarizes the latest findings. We hope this compilation of scientific information will inform readers, help the public recognize the risks of MDMA use.

Nora D.Volkow,M.D.
National Institute on Drug Abuse

Stimulant & psychedelic

MDMA is an illegal drug that acts as both a stimulant and psychedelic, producing an energizing effect. As well as distortions in time and perception and enhanced enjoyment from tactile experiences. Typically, MDMA (an acronym for its chemical name 3,4-methylenedioxy methamphetamine) is taken orally. Usually in a tablet or capsule, and its effects last approximately 3 to 6 hours. The average reported dose is one to two tablets, each tablet typically containing between 60/120 milligrams of MDMA. It is not uncommon for users to take a second dose of the drug as the effects of the first dose begin to fade.

MDMA Ecstasy addiction can affect the brain by altering the activity of chemical messengers, or neurotransmitters. Which enable nerve cells in the brain to communicate with one another. Research in animals has shown that MDMA in moderate to high doses can be toxic to nerve cells. That contain serotonin and can cause long-lasting damage to them. Furthermore, MDMA Ecstasy addiction raises body temperature. On rare but largely unpredictable occasions, this has led to severe medical consequences, including death.

Also, MDMA causes the release of another neurotransmitter, norepinephrine. Which is likely the cause of the increase in heart rate and blood pressure that often accompanies MDMA use.


Although MDMA is known universally among users as ecstasy. Researchers have determined that many ecstasy tablets contain not only MDMA but also a number of other drugs. Or drug combinations that can be harmful as well. Ulterants found in MDMA tablets purchased on the street include methamphetamine, caffeine, the over-the-counter cough suppressant dextromethorphan. Plus the diet drug ephedrine, and cocaine.

Also, as with many other drugs of abuse, MDMA is rarely used alone. It is not uncommon for users to mix MDMA with other substances, such as alcohol and marijuana. MDMA was developedin Germany in the early 1900s as a parent compound to be used to synthesize other pharmaceuticals.

Psychotherapeutic tool

During the 1970s, in the United States, some psychiatrists began using MDMA as a psychotherapeutic tool, despite the fact that the drug had never undergone formal clinical trials nor received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in humans.

In fact, it was only in late 2000 that the FDA approved the first small clinical trial for MDMA that will determine if the drug can be used safely with 2 sessions of ongoing psychotherapy under carefully monitored conditions to treat post-traumatic stress disorder.

Nevertheless, the drug gained a small following among psychiatrists in the late 1970s and early 1980s, with some even calling it “penicillin for the soul” because it was perceived to enhance communication in patient sessions and reportedly allowed users to achieve insights about their problems. It was also during this time that MDMA first started becoming available on the street.

In 1985, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) banned the drug, placing it on its list of Schedule I drugs, corresponding to those substances with no proven therapeutic value.

MDMA Ecstasy addiction in the U.S.A. ? 

It is difficult to determine the exact scope of this problem because MDMA is often used in combination with other substances, and does not appear in some traditional data sources, such as treatment admission rates.

More than 11 million persons aged 12 or older reported using ecstasy at least once in their lifetimes, according to the 2004 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. The number of current (use in past month) users in 2004 was estimated to be 450,000. The Drug Abuse Warning Network, maintained by the Substance Abuse and Mental

Health Services Administration, reported that mentions of MDMA in drug abuse-related cases in hospital emergency departments were 2,221 for the third and fourth quarters of 2003. The majority of patients who came to emergency departments mentioning MDMA as a factor in their admissions during that time were aged 18–20.

There is, however, some encouraging news from NIDA’s Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey, an annual survey used to track drug abuse trends among adolescents in middle and high schools across the country. Between 2001 and 2005, annual ecstasy use decreased by 52 percent in 8th-graders, 58 percent in 10th-graders, and 67 percent in 12th-graders.

Rates of lifetime MDMA use decreased significantly from 2004 to 2005 among 12thgraders. In 2005, 8th-graders reported a significant decrease in perceived harmfulness in using MDMA occasionally. The MTF data also show that MDMA use extends across many demographic subgroups. Among 12th-graders in 2005, for example, 3.9 percent of Whites, 3.0 percent of Hispanic students, and 1.4 percent of African-Americans reported using MDMA in the year prior to the survey.

Who is abusing MDMA?

MDMA first gained popularity among adolescents and young adults in the nightclub scene or weekendlong dance parties known as raves. However, the profile of the typical MDMA user has been changing. Community-level data from NIDA’s Community Epidemiology Work Group (CEWG), continued to report that use of MDMA has spread among populations outside the nightclub scene.

Reports also indicate that use is spreading beyond predominantly White youth to a broader range of ethnic groups. In Chicago, the drug continues to be predominantly used by White youth, but there are increasing reports of its use by African- American adults in their twenties and thirties. Also, indicators in New York suggest that both the distribution and use of club drugs are becoming more common in non-White communities.

Other NIDA research shows that MDMA has also become a popular drug among urban gay males. Reports have shown that some gay and bisexual men take MDMA and other club drugs in myriad venues. This is concerning given that the use of club drugs has been linked to high-risk sexual behaviors that may lead to HIV or other sexually transmitted diseases. Many gay males in big cities report using MDMA as part of a multiple-drug experience that includes marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamine, ketamine,and other legal and illegal substances.

Is MDMA addictive?

For some people, MDMA can be addictive. A survey of young adult and adolescent MDMA users found that 43 percent of those who reported ecstasy use met the accepted diagnostic criteria for dependence, as evidenced by continued use despite knowledge of physical or psychological harm, withdrawal effects, and tolerance (or diminished response), and 34 percent met the criteria for drug abuse.

Almost 60 percent of people who use MDMA Ecstasy addiction report withdrawal symptoms, including fatigue, loss of appetite, depressed feelings, and trouble concentrating. MDMA Ecstasy addiction affects many of the same neurotransmitter systems in the brain that are targeted by other addictive drugs. Experiments have shown that animals prefer MDMA, much like they do cocaine, over other pleasurable stimuli, another hallmark of most addictive drugs.